Contemporary world history till 1914 – Key words

Thinkers

Locke, Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, Thomas, Benjamin, Montesquieu, Voltaire

England

Glorious Revol, Mercantilism, Absolutism, Renaissance, Protestants, 7 Years War

USA

Mercantilism, Stamp Act 1765, No tax w/o rep, Locke, Reason, Thomas, Tea, Conf of Philadelphia, No tax on property

France

3 estates, Louis XVI, Royal Tennis Court, Bastille prison, Rousseau (Man is born free), Locke, Rationalism, Rights of Man and Citizen, Jacobins (Jacobian constitution gave right to vote for all and right to insurrection), Robespierre, Guillotine, Bourgeois, Napoleon, Humanism (Abolition of slavery)

Italy

Cavour, Mazzini

Germany

Bismarck

Nationalism

FR and AR, Napoleon, Language, Colonialism, Rights of Man and Citizen (Concept of nation)

Industrial Revol

Guild -> Putting out -> Factory; Textile, Iron, Steam, Transport (McAdamised Roads), Comm, Agro Revol, Cash crops, Enclosure movt

Impact – Child labor, Inequality, Sanitation, Crime, Globalization, Nuclear family, Trade protectionism, Env, ideology

The growing resentment among the workers and their consequent movements made the government conscious that Laissez Faire is not the sine qua non and the State has a responsibility to protect the vulnerable sections, if Capitalism itself is to be protected from workers revolution.

Imperialism

Gold, Glory (European hegemony) and God , Triangular slave trade, Destruction of civilization (Aztec), navy, Want of FTAs w/ other countries (sort of), Nationalism, IR, Mercantile capitalism, Race for colonies / Neo imperialism, drain theory, capture of port of calls, political control of the colonies, White man’s burden, diminishing geographical space

Africa

Restricted to coast earlier, Slavery (Destroyed families, inferiority complex), Mass killings (10 mln Congolese killed), Divide and Rule (Effect continues even now – Hutu Vs Tutsi), Neglect of edu and health, No economic devlp

China

Machu dynasty, Policy of seclusion (ltd external trade), Opium wars, Open door policy, Taiping rebellion, 1858 loss of territory North of Amur to Russia, Japan invasion (1894), Boxer rising 1899, Japan won against USSR, Western educated Chinese youth returned, Manchu overthrown, Warlord era, May 4th movt, Chinese Communist Party, Kuomintang / KMT, Purification movt n Encirclement campaign to destroy CCP, 2nd Sino Japan war, Mao Zedong, Rectification process, Cold war, Taiwan

Japan

Shotguns (military people) had real power not King, Feudalism, Japan USSR war 1905 (Manchuria had natural reserves needed for Japanese IR), Japan won – US policy of appeasement began, also psychological boost

Japanese IR – US entry in 1853, Western imperialism, Iwakura mission, Self-liberation and Meiji Restoration(Daminios and Samurai surrendered their powers), Constitution based on Prussian model, Compulsory primary edu, promotion of vernacular and Enlgish, therefore skilled work force emphasis on eco devlp, Bank of Japan

WWI -> high export. After WW -> Job loss -> Economic crisis & Competition from China -> Army invaded China in 1937 w/o PM’s knowledge

USA

Opium wars and open door policy in China, Policy of Appeasement to Japan, Monroe doctrine (hegemony over Americas), Panama canal (Manufactured a rebellion in Columbia), Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson promoted investment in S.America

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